By Holger Gzella
Aramaic is a continuing thread operating throughout the numerous civilizations of the close to East, historic and sleek, from one thousand BCE to the current, and has been the language of small principalities, international empires, and a good proportion of the Jewish-Christian culture. Holger Gzella describes its cultural and linguistic historical past as a continuing evolution from its beginnings to the arrival of Islam. For the 1st time the person stages of the language, their socio-historical underpinnings, and the textual assets are mentioned comprehensively in gentle of the newest linguistic and historic study and with considerable recognition to scribal traditions, multilingualism, and language as a marker of cultural self-awareness. Many new observations on Aramaic are thereby built-in right into a coherent old framework.
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Extra info for A Cultural History of Aramaic: From the Beginnings to the Advent of Islam (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Volume 111)
In order to achieve its potential, however, it has to be situated in a broader Arts and Humanities context. e. and the highly diverse modern vernaculars, Aramaic32 has undergone a creative evolution that exhibits a strong tendency towards the emergence of many variations in complex grammatical sub-systems. Phonemes merged and allophones turned into phonemes again; nominal dimensions like 32 This label derives from the name “Aram,” which refers to a population group in biblical as well as Assyrian sources and a region in Syria in the Old Aramaic inscriptions, but its etymology is debated (Lipiński 2000b: 132–133 suggests an internal plural of the Semitic word for ‘wild bull’ as an original totemic animal).
2 masc. 2 fem. /fem. /katab-Ø/ /katab-at/ /katáb-tā/ /katáb-tī/ /katab-t/(< */-tu/) /katab-ū/ presumably /katab-ā/65 /katab-tūm/ /katab-tenn/ /katáb-nā/ (< */-nu/) The base vowel in the second syllable of the stem is lexical. Verbs denoting events mostly have /a/, whereas /e/ (< */i/) and, rarely, /o/ (< */u/) occurs with states (owing to the origin of this form in a conjugated adjective). Migration to the /a/-class in the course of time obscured such a neat distribution, so the base vowel is synchronically unpredictable.
Hollow roots” with a long vowel in the middle position preserve that vowel in forms based on the basic-stem “imperfect” and replace it with the corresponding long vowel of the sound verb elsewhere. 71 Yet the basic-stem active participle and the entire D-stem of most verbs inflect like sound roots. Some verbs, however, have a L(engthening)-stem with a long vowel in the first syllable and reduplication of the second consonantal radical instead. There are some overlaps between geminate and hollow roots.
A Cultural History of Aramaic: From the Beginnings to the Advent of Islam (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Volume 111) by Holger Gzella