By Vít Bubeník
This monograph goals to shut the distance in our wisdom of the character and velocity of grammatical switch in the course of the formative interval of todays Indo-Aryan languages. in the course of the 6th-12th c. the slow erosion of the factitious morphology of previous Indo-Aryan resulted finally within the remodelling of its syntax towards the recent Indo-Aryan analytic type.
This examine concentrates at the emergence and improvement of the ergative building by way of the passive-to-ergative reanalysis and the co-existence of the ergative building with the outdated and new analytic passive structures. distinctive realization is paid to the actuation challenge noticeable because the tug of conflict among conservative and eliminative forces in the course of their improvement. different chapters take care of the evolution of grammatical and lexical point, causativization, modality, absolute structures and subordination.
This learn relies on a wealth of latest information gleaned from unique poetic works in Apabhraṃśa (by Svayaṃbhādeva, Puṣpadanta, Haribhadra, Somaprabha et al.). It comprises sections facing descriptive thoughts of Medieval Indian grammarians (esp. Hemacandra). all of the Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa examples are regularly parsed and translated.
The opus is forged within the theoretical framework of sensible Grammar of the Prague and Amsterdam faculties. it's going to be of specific curiosity to students and scholars of Indo-Aryan and normal old linguistics, in particular these attracted to the problems of morphosyntactic switch and typology of their sociohistorical atmosphere.
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Extra resources for A Historical Syntax of Late Middle Indo-Aryan (Apabhraṃśa)
By the 12th c. we witness the emergence of vernacular Greek in poems composed in 15-syllable accentual verse, a genre outside the classicizing influence. ) is composed in an approximation to spoken medieval Greek. This vernacular koine became the third choice the contemporary writers had for their creations. But let us return to Medieval India and assess the three functional varieties for literary production diachronically. In diachronic perspective these three synchronically available varieties of IA are a product of the elevation to the literary status of formerly spoken varieties: Classical Sanskrit during the early MIA period, followed by Prakrits during the MIA period, and lastly by Apabhramsa at the end of the MIA period.
The Hunic military activity was accompanied by large-scale demographic movements by which various central Asian peoples moved to Northern India. Among them were the Gurjaras who were destined to play a major rule in the spread of Apabhramsa and its rise to a literary status. The Hunic activity subsided by the end of the 6th c , when the Huns were challenged by the Turks and Persians in Bactria. The political scene of Northern India during the 6th c. remained confused. The country was divided into four petty kingdoms: that of the Guptas of Magadha, the Mahakauris around Kanauj, the Pushyabhutis in Thanesar, and the Maitrakas in Gujarat.
To help the missionary activity the Quran was translated into the local Indo-Aryan tongue, Old Sindhi, as early as 883. We also know that there was a Persian version of the epos Mahābhārata translated from Arabic in 1026. The latter, in its turn, was translated from Old Sindhi (cf. Khubchandani 1969:215). Most unfortunately, nothing of these early translations came down to us. Summarily, the lower and middle parts of the Indus valley were linguistically Arabo-Persianized and culturally and religiously islamized before similar processes started taking place in Panjab and the Gangetic Doab.
A Historical Syntax of Late Middle Indo-Aryan (Apabhraṃśa) by Vít Bubeník