By Herbert W. Meyer
Written in an effort to be understood through the non-technical reader who's keen on the starting place of all of the electric and electromagnetic units that encompass him, this historical past additionally presents a handy compendium of knowledge for these acquainted with and magnetic fields. The ebook strikes alongside at a quick velocity, because it needs to whether it is to hide the large proliferation of advancements that experience happened over the past hundred years or so. the writer has struck a achievable stability among the human facet of his tale, introducing these biographical information that aid strengthen it, and its technical part, explaining theories and "how issues paintings" the place this turns out acceptable. He additionally achieves a stability in recounting the invention of easy clinical rules and their technological applications—the myriad of units and innovations that make the most of strength and knowledge in electromagnetic shape. certainly, one of many very important subject matters of the publication is the shut and reciprocal dating among technology and know-how, among thought and perform. prior to nearly 1840, the only medical investigations of electric and magnetic phenomena have been principally advert hoc and observational, and basically no expertise in line with them existed. Afterwards, the clinical explorations grew to become extra programmatic and mathematical, and technical purposes and innovations started to be produced in nice abundance. In go back, this expertise paid its debt to natural technological know-how through delivering it with a sequence of measuring tools and different examine units that allowed it to boost in parallel. even though this ebook stories the early discoveries, from the magnetic lodestone and electrostatic amber of antiquity to Galvani's frog's legs and Franklin's kite-and-key of the 1700s, its significant emphasis is at the post-1840 advancements, because the following bankruptcy titles will determine: Early Discoveries—Electrical Machines and Experiments with Static Electricity—Voltaic electrical energy, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetism, Galvanometers, Ampere, Biot and Savart, Ohm—Faraday and Henry—Direct present Dynamos and Motors—Improvements in Batteries, Electrostatic Machines, and different Older Devices—Electrical tools, legislation, and Definitions of Units—The electrical Telegraph—The Atlantic Cable—The Telephone—Electric Lighting—Alternating Currents—Electric Traction—Electromagnetic Waves, Radio, Facsimile, and Television—Microwaves, Radar, Radio Relay, Coaxial Cable, Computers—Plasmas, Masers, Lasers, gasoline Cells, Piezoelectric Crystals, Transistors—X-Rays, Radioactivity, Photoelectric impact, constitution of the Atom, Spectra.
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Extra resources for A History of Electricity and Magnetism
He may have noted the similarity between these effects and the aurora borealis. Following these experiments, Hawksbee proceeded to build electrical machines using revolving glass globes. Some of his machines were powerful and produced sparks of considerable intensity. Among other experimenters was Professor Johann Heinrich Winckler of the University of Leipzig who, about the year 1733, substituted a fixed cushion for the hand or cloths which had previously been used as rubbers. Georg Matthias Boze (1710-1761) of Wittenberg about 1745 added a prime conductor, with which greater quantities of electricity could be collected.
In this machine a sulfur bal1 that had been cast in a glass globe was mounted on a shaft which passed through its tenter. The bal1 was rotated by means of a crank at the end of the shaft. In later models the shaft was driven at higher speed by means of a belt that passed over a larger driving wheel and over a smaller pulley on the shaft carrying the sulfur bah. The rotating bal1 was excited by friction through the application of the dry hands or a cloth. This machine produced far greater quantities of electricity than had hitherto been available and made possible new and interesting experiments.
In his letter to thc Royal Society, Volta descrihed thc behavior of the pile as similar to that of a feebly charged Leyden jar, b u t unlike that of the Leyden jar, the pile’s charge was not dissipated hut was constantly renewed. HC observed that a spark was produced when wires connected to thc two ends of the pile wcrc brought together. Volta regardrd this discovery a s t h e expcrimental proof of h i s contention that the source of the electricity in Galvani’s cxperiment was in the contact betweerl dissimilar met& Volta also deviser1 what was known as his couronne des tasses (crown of cups), in which striys of copyer and zinc were hung wcr the edges of the çups and were partly immcrsed in a sait or acid solution.
A History of Electricity and Magnetism by Herbert W. Meyer