By Barrie Gunter
Problem is starting to be concerning the effectiveness of tv ads rules within the gentle of technological advancements within the media. the present fast development of television structures in terrestrial, sattelite, and cable codecs will quickly movement into electronic transmission. those all supply possibilities for better commercialization via ads on media that experience now not formerly been exploited. In democratic societies, there's a pressure among freedom of speech rights and the damage that would be performed to childrens via advertisement messages. This ebook explores all of those matters and appears to the long run in contemplating how powerful codes of perform and rules will develop.
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Consequently, there is much disagreement both among academics and between academics and practitioners regarding the ages at which children can differentiate between program and advertising material and when they can understand the persuasive intent of advertising. 3O EARLY UNDERSTANDING OF TV ADVERTISEMENTS 31 In this chapter, young children's awareness and early understanding of advertising will be explored. The main theoretical perspectives will be introduced and then the empirical evidence on children's ability to recognize advertising, their levels of attention and memory for advertisements, and their recognition of persuasiveness intent, will be examined.
Such studies tend to find that children exhibit a drop in attention when an advertisement appears compared with their previous levels of attention during a program, indicating recognition of some difference between the two (Zuckerman, Ziegler, & Stevenson, 1978). In addition to the three methods outlined above, researchers have also used memory to test children's abilities to differentiate between advertisements and programs. Children might be asked to decide whether specific characters were previously seen in a program or in a commercial (Zuckerman & Gianino, 1981).
The majority of the four to eight-year-olds could identify the advertisements as distinct from the surrounding program. However, a similar study by Palmer and McDowell (1979) found that five- to seven-year-olds had difficulty identifying commercials and programs. The children managed to identify only half the commercials and three quarters of the programs. EARLY UNDERSTANDING OF TV ADVERTISEMENTS 35 Attention Another way to measure awareness of advertising includes observation of young children's levels of attention when watching television.
Advertising to Children on TV: Context, Impact, and Regulation by Barrie Gunter