By Alexander M. McKinney
This atlas provides general imaging diversifications of the mind, cranium, and craniocervical vasculature. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) have complicated dramatically long ago 10 years, relatively in regard to new thoughts and 3D imaging. one of many significant difficulties skilled through radiologists and clinicians is the translation of standard versions compared with the abnormalities that the variations mimic. via an intensive selection of photographs, this booklet deals a spectrum of appearances for every version with accompanying 3D imaging for affirmation; explores universal artifacts on MR and CT that simulate ailment; discusses every one version by way of the suitable anatomy; and provides comparability situations for the aim of distinguishing general findings from abnormalities. It contains either universal versions in addition to newly pointed out versions which are visualized through lately constructed suggestions comparable to diffusion-weighted imaging and multidetector/multislice CT. The ebook additionally highlights basic imaging editions in pediatric circumstances.
Atlas of standard Imaging diversifications of the mind, cranium, and Craniocervical Vasculature is a important source for neuroradiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and radiologists in examining the commonest and identifiable versions and utilizing the simplest easy methods to classify them expediently.
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Additional info for Atlas of Normal Imaging Variations of the Brain, Skull, and Craniocervical Vasculature
To understand the normal pattern of enhancement of the facial nerve, a brief review of the nerve’s course is necessary. Overall, the motor component of CN7 originates from the brainstem and travels anterolaterally into the IAC and thereafter into the bony facial canal (also known as the fallopian canal); this is followed by its egress from the skull base via the stylomastoid foramen. Thus, the segments of CN7 serially may be considered to be the following, followed by the rate that they enhance in asymptomatic patients as based on several studies: 1.
Postcontrast FS spoiled GET1WIs (T1FFE) in the axial (left images) and coronal (right) planes depict normal mild enhancement of the left geniculate ganglion (arrows) as well as enhancement of the proximal portions of the left horizonal/tympanic segment of CN7 (thin arrows) Fig. 5 T MRI for dizziness. On axial (left) and coronal (right) postcontrast FS spoiled GET1WI (T1FFE) there is mild left geniculate ganglion enhancement (arrows). Such susceptibility artifacts (often from aerated mastoid air cells or petrous apices) may obscure regions of CN7 enhancement on GET1WI 48 5 Cranial Nerve VII: Normal Contrast Enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fig.
5 T 3-mm postcontrast FS SET1WI (left), which was more prominent than the same contralateral segment (dotted arrows). A lack of edema on T2WI (middle) or FLAIR (right) argues against but does not definitively exclude perineural invasion by tumor Fig. 26 Comparison case of Bell palsy. 5 T 3-mm postcontrast FS SET1WIs in axial (left) and coronal (right) planes. Note the enhancement of the right geniculate ganglion as well (arrow), which can be normal Fig. 27 Comparison case of Bell palsy. 5 T 3-mm postcontrast non–FS SET1WIs in axial (left) and coronal (right) planes.
Atlas of Normal Imaging Variations of the Brain, Skull, and Craniocervical Vasculature by Alexander M. McKinney