By Gideon Freudenthal
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1. difficulties and strategies of Analysis.- 2. technological know-how and Philosophy; Newton and Leibniz.- three. ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Space.- four. Newton’s idea of house and the gap idea of Newtonianism.- five. The Leibniz-Newton dialogue and the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.- One/Element and process in Classical Mechanics.- I. Newton’s Justification of the speculation of Absolute Space.- 1. Absolute movement and Absolute area; Newton’s First Presupposition.- 2. evidence of the lifestyles of a Vacuum; Newton’s moment Presupposition.- three. ‘Density’ and ‘Quantity of Matter’.- four. facts of the life of Empty Space.- five. the fundamental homes of a Particle in Empty house; the matter of Gravitation.- 6. Newton’s legislations of Inertia.- 7. A unmarried Particle in Empty house; Newton’s basic Presupposition.- II. Leibniz’s Foundations of Dynamics.- 1. Leibniz’s New degree of Force.- 2. Descartes’ mistakes and the bounds of the perception of Leibniz.- three. motion motrice.- four. Leibniz’s legislations of Inertia.- five. Absolute movement and Absolute Space.- 6. Density.- 7. legislation of impression, Elasticity, and the concept that of a cloth Body.- III. The dialogue among Leibniz and Newton at the idea of Science.- 1. Newton’s degree of strength and God’s Intervention.- 2. Newton’s proposal of Gravity and house because the Sensorium Dei.- three. Leibniz’s Critique of the Unscientific personality of Newton’s Philosophy.- four. The Clock as a systematic Model.- five. technological know-how and Unscientific Philosophy: Newton’s Contradictory Views.- 6. Results.- Two/Element and method in sleek Philosophy.- IV. the idea that of aspect in seventeenth Century normal Philosophy.- 1. Bacon.- 2. Descartes.- three. Newton’s Critique of Descartes; Boyle’s Compromise.- V. the concept that of point within the Systematic Philosophy of Hobbes.- VI. the concept that of point in 18th Century Social Philosophy.- 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- 2. Adam Smith.- VII. the connection among typical and Social Philosophy within the paintings of Newton, Rousseau, and Smith.- Three/On the Social heritage of the Bourgeois idea of the Individual.- VIII. England ahead of the Revolution.- 1. city, nation, and the Poor.- 2. The Politics of the Stuarts.- three. The Church.- four. estate and Protestantism opposed to Feudalism and Papism.- five. sensible and Theoretical fight for Sovereignty.- IX. The Antifeudal Social Philosophy of Hobbes.- 1. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Nature as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- 2. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Society as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- three. Catholic Church and kingdom kingdom within the seventeenth Century.- four. Hobbes’s concept of the nation as a freelance of equivalent and Autarchic Individuals.- five. Hobbes’s Political Program.- 6. the talk with Feudal concept and the Analytic-Synthetic Method.- X. the increase of Civil Society in England.- 1. The Levellers.- 2. The Suppression of the Levellers.- three. recovery: Whigs and Tories.- four. The Theoretical Controversies among Whigs and Tories; Locke and Newton as Whigs.- five. The Reign of the ‘Plusmakers’.- XI. replacement Conceptions of Civil Society.- 1. The Capitalistic Commodity creation of self sustaining owners: Adam Smith.- 2. the easy Commodity construction of self sustaining deepest owners: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- XII. Civil Society and Analytic-Synthetic Method.- 1. Society as an mixture of Autarchic Individuals.- 2. research as identifying the houses of unmarried Individuals.- three. Results.- Four/Atom and Individual.- XIII. The Bourgeois person and the fundamental houses of a Particle in Newton’s Thought.- 1. Passivity and task as crucial Properties.- 2. Newton’s ‘Ego sum et cogito’.- three. Freedom and Spontaneity.- four. Will and physique; energetic and Passive Principle.- five. The procedure of ‘Natural Freedom’ within the nation and on the planet System.- 6. approach of Philosophy.- 7. Newtonian Ideology.- XIV. aspect and approach within the Philosophy of Leibniz.- 1. The ‘Oppressed Counsellor’.- 2. at the Social Philosophy of Leibniz.- three. The Double feel of illustration in Mechanics and Metaphysics.- Afterword.- Notes.- Bibliography of Works Cited.- record of Abbreviations.- identify Index.
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Extra info for Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of the Mechanistic World View (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Volume 88)
But every motion consists in a change of position of bodies: while motion is not dependent upon being observed, it is dependent on observability. To say that a body moves absolutely, means nothing more than that only one of the kinematically possible descriptions is also suitable for a dynamical explanation. In the system in question certain bodies move absolutely but all bodies move relative to one another. None of the motions needs to be referred to absolute space. 16 In his reply Clarke counters that he did not see how from this point of view one could avoid the "absurd consequence", that the mobility of one body depends on the existence of other bodies; and that any single body existing alone, would be incapable of motion; or that the parts of a circulating body (suppose the sun,) would lose the vis centrifuga arising from their circular motion, if all extrinsic matter around them were annihilated (Clarke's 5th Reply, § § 26-32).
And since it has already been proved that the vis viva is conserved, it follows that the product of this force and the time, mv 2 t must also be conserved (cf. Essay de Dynamique, GM VI, 222). The concept of 'action mo trice , is thus of no significance as a measure of force. The basic idea of introducing a measure of force for distance is nonetheless significant, for it takes the first step towards a concept of 'work' (msa). It is however characteristic that Leibniz is not interested in the measure of an 'additional force' producing acceleration along the distance.
And this is an enormous leap from one extreme to another" (Principe general, GP III, 53; PPL, 352; cf. GM VI, l31). One can see that Leibniz, unlike Descartes, does not separate motion from direction. In the refutation of the Cartesian laws of impact, the 'general law of nature' concerning the equivalence of cause and effect is confirmed. Leibniz had so far applied this principle only in the special case in which a freely falling, uniformly accelerated body represents the 'whole cause' and the raising of another body represents the 'entire effect'.
Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of the Mechanistic World View (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Volume 88) by Gideon Freudenthal