By Prof. S. K Patil
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Apart from above parts, a reflecting hinged mirror is provided on top of longitudinal bubble to see image of bubble in case bubble is not visible to short person. Prismatic compass is provided to take bearing of line, which required to find the direction of line. LEVELING STAFF:Vertical member, graduated in meters for taking readings of vertical with respect to horizontal line of collimation is called leveling staff. For durability aluminum staff is preferred over wooden staff. Telescopic staff sections.
The fore and back bearings of a line differ only in quadrant, and angle remains same. LOCAL ATTRACTION : The magnetic needle does not point to the magnetic north when under the influence of external attractive forces. It is deflected when placed in vicinity of masses of magnetic rock or iron Ore, steel structures, rails, electric cables etc. Such a disturbing influence is called 'local attraction'. It the fore & back bearings do not have same angle, then there is local attraction at either station, provided the compass in free from instrumental errors & no observational error are made.
Plotting of road profile: Along „x‟ axis mention the distance of each interval and on „Y‟ axis mention the RL‟s. Fix the points with respect to their central distance and RL. Fix all the points on a graph and trace the smooth curve passing through all these points. this line shows the profile of the road center along it‟s length. PAGE No………….. S. S. S. 's Remark ΣFALL ARTHEMATIC CHECK: ΣBS – ΣFS = ΣRISE – ΣFALL = Last RL- First RL PAGE No………….. SAMPLE CALCULATION: PAGE No………….. CROSS SECTION AT CHAINAGE CROSS SECTION AT CHAINAGE RESULT: The cross section of road for Chainage ……………………………………………..
Basic civil Engineering Lab Manual by Prof. S. K Patil