By Gene E. Likens (auth.)
The aim of this 3rd version is to replace long term information awarded in previous variations and to generate new syntheses and conclusions concerning the biogeochemistry of the Hubbard Brook Valley in response to those longer-term info. there were many alterations, revelations, and interesting new insights generated from the longer info files. for instance, the effect of acid rain peaked throughout the interval of the HBES and is now declining. The longer-term facts additionally posed demanding situations in that very marked adjustments in fluxes happened in a few parts, equivalent to hydrogen ion and sulfate deposition, calcium and nitrate export in move water and biomass accumulation, throughout the nearly 50 years of list. hence, featuring “mean” or “average” stipulations for lots of elements for any such lengthy interval, whilst swap used to be so favorite, don't make feel. every so often, pentads or a long time of time are in comparison to exhibit those adjustments in a extra smoothed and rational means for this lengthy interval. every so often, a unmarried interval, frequently in periods of quick switch, corresponding to acidification, is used to demonstrate the most point(s). And, for a few components a different mass stability technique, permitting the calculation of the internet surroundings Flux (NEF), is proven on an annual foundation in the course of the study.
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1974; McDowell and Likens 1988; Likens et al. 1994, 1998, 2002a; Fahey et al. 2005; Lovett et al. 2005). , Likens et al. 1994, 1998, 2002a, b; Likens 2004; Lovett et al. 2005; Fahey et al. 2005; Likens and Buso 2010a; Bernal et al. 2012). Element mass balances in combination with the small, watershed-ecosystem approach provide an excellent conceptual framework to investigate the ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry of forest watershed-ecosystems and associated aquatic ecosystems, as well as to evaluate the response of ecosystems to disturbance.
Only a small fraction of this organic matter is dissociated organic acids (Likens et al. 1976, 1983; Galloway et al.
86). S. Geological Survey gauging station in Plymouth, NH (Slack et al. 1997). This strong relationship provides an excellent proxy for long-term streamflow from HBEF, as the Bethlehem precipitation station provides a proxy for precipitation prior to 1958, because the Pemigewasset River gauge has been operating since 1886. The close relationships between streamwater quantity for streams in the HBEF and larger streams throughout northern New England add considerable support to the contention that HBEF streams are representative in many ways and that research results from the HBEF can be useful in extension and application to other areas for management purposes and for increasing ecological understanding at larger spatial scales.
Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem by Gene E. Likens (auth.)