By Peter Clark
This e-book offers the 1st account of the increase of those such a lot unique, common and robust of social associations in Georgian Britain. With roots within the early glossy period, British golf equipment and societies swept the rustic through 1800, after they numbered within the millions, and their impact keeps at the present time. the advanced mosaic of golf equipment and societies, starting from freemasonry to bird-fancying, the writer considers the explanations for his or her winning improvement, their export to the United States and the colonies, and their impression on British Society.
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Additional resources for British Clubs and Societies 1580-1800: The Origins of an Associational World
Cros®eld Diary, 6, 23, 63; Underdown, Revel, Riot and Rebellion, 75±7 and passim; Oxfordshire RO, MS, Oxon. dioc. c. 23, fo. 140. 19 P. Clark and J. Clark, `The Social Economy of the Canterbury Suburbs: The Evidence of the Census of 1563', in A. Detsicas and N. ), Studies in Modern Kentish History (Maidstone, 1983), 80; J. Boulton, Neighbourhood and Society: A London Suburb in the 17th Century (Cambridge, 1987), 218±20. 20 Hill, Society and Puritanism, ch. 5, pp. 421±5; V. Harding, `Churchyards in Early Modern London and Paris', in The Street and Square: Public and Private Space, Papers at the Second European Urban History Conference (Strasbourg,1994).
As already noted, trade gilds survived the Reformation and retained signi®cant social functions, with feasts, sermons, processions, and the like. However, they were increasingly regulated by the town authorities, and their social ambit narrowed with the growing dominance of leading masters, marginalizing ordinary members from the social and cultural life of gilds. After 1700 they were in decline in many English towns. 24 Unlike the trade gilds, civic corporations expanded their authority during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, affecting not only economic but also social and cultural activities.
Throughout Catholic Europe the Church remained the principal focus for public sociability at the local level until near the end of the period. On tour in the 1770s, Richard Whalley bemoaned the lack of `public diversions' in Italy, apart from `the religious raree-shows'; there is `nothing . . of that sociality which reigns in an English circle'. 47 How far did continental academies and societies in¯uence the growth of British clubs and societies? Not much, it would seem. During the 1620s new aristocratic clubs in London copied some of the trappings of Italian academies, including the use of exotic titles.
British Clubs and Societies 1580-1800: The Origins of an Associational World by Peter Clark