By Emmanuela Cresti, Massimo Moneglia
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Additional resources for C-ORAL-Rom: Integrated Reference Corpora for Spoken Romance Languages (Studies in Corpus Linguistics)
Qui sopra, sì. No. Ascolta. Qui. Sopra sì. No, ascolta. Qui. Sopra sì. No. Ascolta, qui sopra. Sì. [No. Listen. Here ? At the top ? ] [No. Listen here. ] [No. Listen. ] [No, listen, here. ] [No, listen. ] [No. Listen. Here. ] [No, listen. Here. ] [No. Listen, (what about) up here? ] Qui sì. Qui, sì. Qui. Sì. ] [Here. ] As the translations suggest, all the word groupings, which all correspond to distinct possible utterance boundaries, are consistent with the contextual domain. Therefore, neither syntactic nor contextual information are sufficient to determine the actual structure of the previous turns.
In present approaches to multimedia spoken language archives, a “from silence to silence” criterion is the most common, probably because the automatic recognition of pauses in the speech flow is quite an easy task to be pursued, given the actual technology. This, in fact, at the outset, seems very reasonable, because utterance boundaries frequently occur together with significant wave interruptions. 2 illustrates the third turn from the dialogue examined, where, after the utterance no, there is an interruption of approximately 600 ms (indicated in light grey) that marks the break before the beginning of the next utterance.
Breaks have also been annotated (together with other cues), specifically in a sub-corpus of the Dutch corpus (Buhmann et al. 2002). g. the ToBI system). This type of prosodic annotation that does not constitute a “transcription of prosody” is significant as regards large corpora labelling strategies. The percentage of consensus on cues like “types of edge tone” and “types of pitch accent” was found to be quite low (Wightman 2002), while on the contrary a high degree of agreement on labelling prosodic breaks is found.
C-ORAL-Rom: Integrated Reference Corpora for Spoken Romance Languages (Studies in Corpus Linguistics) by Emmanuela Cresti, Massimo Moneglia