By J. Gonda
The nature of the Indo-European moods : with detailed regard to Greek and Sanskrit
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Extra info for Character of the Indo-European moods with special regard to Greek and Sanskrit
Wuttke-E. H. Meyer, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube3, 1900, § 226ff. See also G. van der Leeuw, Wegen en Grenzen2, Amsterdam 1948, p. 155ff. 2) According to the commentary the mouth of a snake is meant: the line belongs to a text recited for protection against serpents. — For the subj. see ch. VI. 3) See also my Remarks on similes, Leiden 1949, p. ; C. M. Bowra, Heroic poetry, London 1952, p. 276ff. — The verb forms characterized by -a- will be discussed further on. 40 The Indo-European moods ence between present and past time often was not essential; it could even be absent.
Gä. 30, 2 ; 31, 19; RV. 7, 82, 8— , in the modulation o f the sentence or in extra-grammatical means o f conveying these modifications. The above formula pra vocam, for instance, is often accompanied by the particle nu which inter alia expresses the sense o f “ now, at once, now then” or similar 'stimulative or hortative indeclinabilia’ and is also often found in connection with a subjunctive or an imperative3) : cf. e. g. RV. 1, 32, 1; 59, 6 ; 154, 1; 2,15,1. A similar force is borne by the emphatical u, u su etc.
Although such great mythic events as Indra’s combat with Vrtra are as a rule referred to by past tenses (cf. e. g. RV . ) passages are not wanting in which other verb forms are used: the pres, indie, e. g. 2, 19, 4; 6, 68, 3; 7, 22, 2 (cf. ), the imperative 1, 23, 9; 8, 89, 4, and 6, 44, 15. From the fact that the god is not infrequently described as slaying the demon or similar enemies in the present or is invoked to do so, it appears that he was regarded as constantly renewing the combat (cf.
Character of the Indo-European moods with special regard to Greek and Sanskrit by J. Gonda