By Thorsten M. Buzug
This quantity offers an outline of X-ray expertise and the old improvement of recent CT platforms. the focus of the booklet is an in depth derivation of reconstruction algorithms in second and glossy 3D cone-beam platforms. a radical research of CT artifacts and a dialogue of useful concerns akin to dose concerns provide additional perception into present CT structures.
Although written ordinarily for graduate scholars of biomedical engineering, scientific physics, medication (radiology), arithmetic, electric engineering, and physics, practitioners in those fields also will reap the benefits of this book.
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Additional resources for Computed Tomography: From Photon Statistics to Modern Cone-Beam CT
Therefore, this is the basic model that will be used throughout this book. ) is deﬁned for convenience. It is essentially the negative logarithm of the ratio of the incoming and outgoing number of photons. In the technical realization of CT, one is restricted to a certain discretization of the reconstructed images. When an X-ray beam runs through the continuous matter, such a partitioning of the penetrated material cannot be physically measured. Nevertheless, one can model the matter to be discrete and calculate the total attenuation for this case.
In Fig. , the single processes are summarized schematically. 1 Rayleigh or Thomson Scattering Rayleigh or Thomson scattering is an elastic scattering event that can be observed if the diameter of the scattering nucleus is small compared with the wavelength of the incident radiation. The incident and the scattered X-ray have equal wavelength, but the directions of the scattered rays are diﬀerent from those of the incident beam. Consequently, there is no energy transfer. The cross-section can be derived by the classical model in which the electric ﬁeld of the incoming beam drives strongly bound electrons of an atom up and down.
With a ﬂying focus the spatial resolution of the sampling unit can be doubled The diameter of the X-ray focus depends on the diagnostic application (see for example Huda and Slone ). 2 X-ray Generation Fig. . a Radiation directionality of a Hertz dipole producing bremsstrahlung during relativistic electron deceleration. b Heel eﬀect: Intensity reduction of X-ray due to self absorption at the anode surface. c X-ray spectra of a tungsten anode simulated for diﬀerent anode angles at Ua = kV and mm Al ﬁltering (courtesy of B.
Computed Tomography: From Photon Statistics to Modern Cone-Beam CT by Thorsten M. Buzug